Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean Jack Rousseau are the most well-known names in the history of political thoughts. This trio is named as “social contractarian”.
The social contract is a fictional depiction of nature. Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau interpret the nature according to their own thoughts. For example, Hobbes says that the nature is chaos and turmoil because of the freedom and stop at nothing. On the other hand Locke describes the concept of equality, because everyone has borders for their life. So nobody bothered each other, they know their limits and benefits. And according to Rousseau there is equality in nature. People are not dependent on each other, because everyone is compassionate and helpful.
The thinkers described the nature with different aspects, so different ideas have emerged. Each thinker fictions a social contract themselves, because they have different values. Therefore, they interpret the concepts differently, because of these differences. Such as these concepts: “state, freedom, society, power, source of power, self-control, and ext.”
For example according to Hobbes before occurring of state, there was fighting, war, and strife in the nature. In other words “man is a wolf to man” or “homo homini lupus”. And everyone had a fight with anyone. Society did not progress at such a time. Therefore, people agreed for providing order and peace among themselves and the end of it they made a contract. They transferred their freedoms to Leviathan (state). Lastly, according to Hobbes, the state was born for providing order from the social contract by the people which is in natural life. Leviathan’s mission is to maintain order. Thus, in the Hobbes’s conceptions state is not liberal, it is authoritarian.
John Locke says that there was peace and freedom among the people who lived in the old period, before occurring the state. The people had happy lives. There was a trouble and it was punishment. There was not any soot for punishment. Therefore people made a contract and they gave up from their punishment rights. Due to the contract people moved to political society from natural society.
Last thinkers on the subject is Rousseau. According to him, there was equality, peace and happiness among the people in natural life. But people started to cover their needs, and this gave rise to private property. Equality was damaged with the emergence of private property. Fighting and bickering came out instead of peace and happiness. People made a contract to end the turmoil in the society. A social committee was formed with the contract, and this is state.
As mentioned above, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean Jack Rousseau have social contract, and again as mentioned above, they have different conceptions for the social contract. We have explained the reasons that what they are.
As a result, ruled citizens and rulers made a social contract. If they honuor the contract mutually, and respect the rule of law, will come out in a well-organized state.
NASRETTIN GUNES, IR, 2014